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Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest...
Timeline of Events
565
8.22.565
St. Columba reports seeing a monster in Loch Ness, Scotland.
1054
7.27.1054
Siward, Earl of Northumbria invades Scotland to support Malcolm Canmore against Macbeth of Scotland, who usurped the Scottish throne from Malcolm's father, King Duncan. Macbeth is defeated at Dunsinane.
1153
5.27.1153
Malcolm IV becomes King of Scotland.
1291
5.10.1291
Scottish nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England.
1292
11.17.1292
(O.S.) John Balliol becomes King of Scotland.
1295
7.5.1295
Scotland and France form an alliance, the so-called "Auld Alliance", against England.
1296
3.30.1296
Edward I sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed, during armed conflict between Scotland and England.
4.27.1296
Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated by Edward I of England.
1305
8.5.1305
William Wallace, who led the Scottish resistance against England, is captured by the English near Glasgow and transported to London where he is put on trial and executed.
1306
6.19.1306
The Earl of Pembroke's army defeats Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.
1318
4.1.1318
Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English.
1320
4.6.1320
The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath.
1322
10.14.1322
Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland's independence.
1411
7.24.1411
Battle of Harlaw, one of the bloodiest battles in Scotland, takes place.
1472
2.20.1472
Orkney and Shetland are pawned by Norway to Scotland in lieu of a dowry for Margaret of Denmark.
1503
5.28.1503
James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor are married according to a Papal Bull by Pope Alexander VI. A Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England signed on that occasion results in a peace that lasts ten years.
8.8.1503
King James IV of Scotland marries Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII of England at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Scotland.
1513
9.9.1513
James IV of Scotland is defeated and dies in the Battle of Flodden Field, ending Scotland's involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai.
1543
9.9.1543
Mary Stuart, at nine months old, is crowned "Queen of Scots" in the central Scottish town of Stirling.
1547
9.10.1547
The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, the last full scale military confrontation between England and Scotland, resulting in a decisive victory for the forces of Edward VI.
1559
5.2.1559
John Knox returns from exile to Scotland to become the leader of the beginning Scottish Reformation.
1560
2.27.1560
The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland.
2.27.1560
The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland.
7.6.1560
The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England.
1561
8.19.1561
An 18-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, returns to Scotland after spending 13 years in France.
1565
7.29.1565
The widowed Mary, Queen of Scots, marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Duke of Albany, at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Scotland.
1566
3.9.1566
David Rizzio, private secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, is murdered in the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, Scotland.
1567
2.10.1567
An explosion destroys the Kirk o' Field house in Edinburgh, Scotland. The second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, Lord Darnley is found strangled, in what many believe to be an assassination.
1568
5.13.1568
Battle of Langside: the forces of Mary, Queen of Scots, are defeated by a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, Earl of Moray, her half-brother.
1570
1.23.1570
The assassination of regent James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war.
1590
5.17.1590
Anne of Denmark is crowned Queen of Scotland.
1600
1.1.1600
Scotland begins its numbered year on January 1 instead of March 25.
1625
3.27.1625
Charles I becomes King of England, Scotland and Ireland as well as claiming the title King of France.
1640
10.26.1640
The Treaty of Ripon is signed, restoring peace between Scotland and Charles I of England.
1650
4.27.1650
The Battle of Carbisdale: A Royalist army invades mainland Scotland from Orkney Island but is defeated by a Covenanter army.
1651
1.1.1651
Charles II is crowned King of Scotland.
1661
4.23.1661
King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
1692
2.13.1692
Massacre of Glencoe: About 78 Macdonalds at Glen Coe, Scotland are killed early in the morning for not promptly pledging allegiance to the new king, William of Orange.
1701
9.16.1701
James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the "Old Pretender", becomes the Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England and Scotland.
1786
6.29.1786
Alexander Macdonell and over five hundred Roman Catholic highlanders leave Scotland to settle in Glengarry County, Ontario.