13
April
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April 13 in History
2009
Citi Field opens to almost 44,000 people in a game lost by the New York Mets 6-5 to the San Diego Padres.
1997
Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win The Masters Tournament.
1992
The Great Chicago Flood.
1987
Portugal and the People's Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to China in 1999.
1984
India moves into Siachen Glacier thus annexing more territory from the Line of Control.
1983
Harold Washington is elected as the first African-American mayor in Chicago's history.
1976
The United States Treasury Department reintroduced the two-dollar bill as a Federal Reserve Note on Thomas Jefferson's 233rd birthday as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration.
1975
Bus Massacre in Lebanon: Attack by the Phalangist resistance kill 26 militia members of the P.F.L. of Palestine, marking the start of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War.
1974
Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the United States' first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.
1972
The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan.
1970
An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon.
1969
Closure of the Brisbane tramway network.
1963
At the Academy Awards, Sidney Poitier becomes the first African-American male to win the Best Actor award for ''Lilies of the Field''.
1958
Van Cliburn is the first American to win the Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow.
1953
CIA director Allen Dulles launches the mind-control program MKULTRA.
1948
The Hadassah medical convoy massacre: In an ambush, 79 Jewish doctors, nurses and medical students from Hadassah Hospital and a British soldier are massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem.
1945
German troops kill more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen Germany.
1944
Diplomatic relations between New Zealand and the Soviet Union are established.
1943
World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners of war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyń Forest Massacre is announced, alienating the Western Allies, the Polish government in exile in London, from the Soviet Union.
James Boarman, Fred Hunter, Harold Brest and Floyd G. Hamilton take part in an attempt to escape from Alcatraz .
The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson's birth.
1941
Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan is signed.
1939
In India, the Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) is formed and vows to engage in armed struggle against the British.
1921
Foundation of the Spanish Communist Workers' Party.
1919
Jallianwala Bagh massacre: British troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India. At least 1200 wounded.
Eugene V. Debs enters prison at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, for speaking out against the draft during World War I.
The Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
1902
James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
1873
The Colfax Massacre takes place.
1870
The Metropolitan Museum of Art founded.
1868
The Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Magdala.
1861
American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces.
1849
Hungary becomes a republic.
1829
The British Parliament grants freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.
1796
The first elephant ever seen in the United States arrives from India.
1742
George Frideric Handel's oratorio ''Messiah'' makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland.
1612
Miyamoto Musashi defeats Sasaki Kojiro at Funajima island.
1598
Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots. (Edict repealed in 1685.)
1256
The Grand Union of the Augustinian order formed when Pope Alexander IV issues a papal bull ''Licet ecclesiae catholicae''.
1250
The Seventh Crusade is defeated in Egypt, Louis IX of France is captured.
1204
Constantinople falls to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending the Byzantine Empire.
1111
Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.