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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...
Timeline of Events
1209
10.4.1209
Otto IV is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.
1346
7.11.1346
Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1519
6.28.1519
Charles V is elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1555
4.17.1555
After 18 months of siege, Siena surrenders to the Florentine-Imperial army. The Republic of Siena is incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
1619
8.28.1619
Ferdinand II is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1631
5.20.1631
The city of Magdeburg in Germany is seized by forces of the Holy Roman Empire and most of its inhabitants massacred, in one of the bloodiest incidents of the Thirty Years' War.
1632
4.15.1632
Battle of Rain; Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus defeat the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.
1636
10.4.1636
The Swedish Army defeats the armies of Saxony and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Wittstock.
1645
8.3.1645
Thirty Years' War: the Second Battle of Nördlingen sees French forces defeating those of the Holy Roman Empire.
1697
9.20.1697
The Treaty of Rijswijk is signed by France, England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic ending the Nine Years' War (1688–97).
1719
1.23.1719
The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire.
1757
11.5.1757
Seven Years' War: Frederick the Great defeats the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Rossbach.
1806
7.12.1806
Sixteen German imperial states leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine.
8.6.1806
Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates ending the Holy Roman Empire.